Exercise 7 and 8

Find problem and develop a solution:

  1.  Problem: forgot to record data   Solution: have a checklist or ask an assistant to remind you to record
  2. Problem: the baby is hot and thus uncomfortable.  Solution: place a quiet fan behind the baby
  3. Problem: the other is stressed out   Solution: prep the parent before the study and make sure that the parent is informed about what is going on
  4. Problem: there is a light behind the window that is distracting to the baby  Solution: cover the window with a towel

List of relevant talks this month:


    Family Literacy Workshop: Process Art for Toddlers

    When it comes to art projects for toddlers, it’s all about the process, not the product. Parents and caregivers are invited to join us as we discuss ways to engage children under 4 in creative activities that will nurture development and early learning skills. We’ll try out some projects together and send you home with ideas for more art activities to share with your child. Mon, March 13
    @ 10:30 a.m.
  2. HE ARNOLD PFEFFER CENTER FOR NEUROPSYCHOANALYSIS An Integrative Model of Autism Spectrum DisorderSaturday, March 4, 2017
    10:00 am

    Presenter: William Singletary, M.D.
    Discussant: Maggie Zellner, Ph.D.

  3. Education Coordinators Webinar Series: The Planned Language Approach

    The Planned Language Approach (PLA) is a comprehensive, research-based, and coordinated program-wide approach to providing optimal language and literacy services for ALL children, including dual language learners. This session is intended for education coordinators who are new to PLA or who would benefit from a refresher on the PLA resources.

    Topics include:

    ·        Overview of the Planned Language Approach

    ·        Exploration of the online PLA materials on the ECLKC

    Read More

    March 28, 2017 3 p.m ET – 4 p.m ET



Babies (2010)

Based on Babies (2010) I have developed a study to assess the differences and similarities between how babies learn in America and Africa.


Among the many differences in the cultures is the fact that a collective society is exhibited in Africa. There the entire community is involved in raising the babies.This was exemplified in the movie by showing other children taking care of babies as well as one woman taking care of and breast feeding many babies. In comparison, American culture is more independent. This was shown in the movie by one parent, usually a mother, taking care of her baby by herself. Another distinct difference between the African and American cultures, as demonstrated in the movie, is differing levels of sanitation in the babies environment. In Africa, the babies were placed on the ground, free to roam around  and able to put organic things in their mouth that were laying on the ground. In America, however, babies are closely monitored and everything around the baby was baby proof to ensure that the babies would not be able to go anywhere or swallow anything that could potentially be harmful. In addition, from what I observed in the African setting the process of learning during infancy was more of a product of nature. The babies learn from their environment in an unstructured way. In America, on the other hand, babies were observed taking part in organized classes to practice and experience leaning at a very early age. Lastly, the differences in clothing between the two cultures stood out. In the African cultures the clothing was minimum. Often the babies were diaper free and the women were exposed. In America the clothing was always worn and there was a very little amount of skin showing. Therefore, babies in America learn that ones body must always be covered and that it is inappropriate to show skin. As a result, Americans often have issues with their own body type as well as an overall judgement about what bodies should look like, due to their lack of exposure.


Based on my observations, I think that it would be interesting to design an experiment in which both cultures are examined for a long duration of time to asses the level of success (based on the given cultures standards) that the children experience in their life. To do this I would purpose that two groups per culture are created. The first group learns during infancy in the way that their culture is accustomed to and the other group learns in the way that the other culture experiences. After a few years the children’s success in learning is measures by examinations that determines their skills in comparison to what their culture deems as adequate.


Exercice 4-5

Observations after crawling on my hands and feet:
After crawling on my hands and feet, in attempts to literally put my self in the shoes of a baby, I learned a lot about the challenges that may arise. First of all, I learned the importance of being cautious of sharp edges. Possibly just because I am physically larger than an infant, but nevertheless it was difficult of avoid hitting and potentially being hurt by sharp edges such as those on the cabinets and corners of my bed. Secondly, my knees felt weak and my hands were red after having to crawl. I wonder if this is a result of weighing more than a baby or if babies find it uncomfortable as well. Lastly, I noticed the difficulty in avoiding objects left on the ground. Based on this dilemma I realized the necessity for parents or caretakers to make sure that the floors are always spotless in order to guarantee that their baby will never accidentally hurts themselves.In addition, I questioned if babies are able to recognize that they should avoid the objects on the ground or if they are simply not concerned about them.

Posters that are selected to make a ten year old feel comfortable in a waiting room:

  • A poster of a popular musician such a Justin Beiber. I think that this lglp1381will be relatable to 10 year old children which theoretically would make them feel more comfortable in the given environment. Ultimately, the child feeling more comfortable will be beneficial to the study.
  • I think that a poster with an inspiring quote or words, such as the one below will also make a 10 year old feel more comfortable. The child is at an age where they are just beginning to care about others opinion about themimages. Thus, seeing a quote that can potentially make them feel good about themselves can be very important to their overall confidence.


  •  It may also help a child feel more conformable and able to relate to the environment they are in if there are posters of their favorite book or movie, such as Harry Potter, present. Especially the presence of a poster of a book might have a huge impact on the child’s comfort. As previously mentioned, ten is an age where children are beginning to be very self contious, therefore,  a child who might be under the impression that reading is not “cool”, even though they enjoy reading may be able to feel more at ease about being themselves in the waiting room and ultimately the study. imgres

Find 5 recent (last 6 months) research studies

Studies title: Virtual reality helps children on autism spectrum improve social skills

What Research question is being addressed: Can a virtual reality computer program improve social skills in autistic children?

Why is this question important: As stated in the article,  “[A]lthough most children with high-functioning autism have above average intellectual capabilities, they often experience social difficulties. Deficits in social communication and difficulty inhibiting thoughts and regulating emotions can lead to social isolation and low self-esteem.”

What is new about this study:  It shows that the new virtual reality training program, which is intended to create a safe space for children with autism to practice social skills without the fear of negative consequences. The significance of the findings were published in the journal Computers in Human Behavior,  which states, “participants who completed the training demonstrated improved social cognition skills and reported better relationships. Neurocognitive testing showed significant gains in emotional recognition, understanding the perspective of others and the ability to solve problems.”

Limitations and future direction of the study: The study is recent and thus we do not know the long term effect that the virtual reality program can have on the participants.

Read more at: https://medicalxpress.com/news/2016-09-virtual-reality-children-autism-spectrum.html#jCp
Continue reading “Find 5 recent (last 6 months) research studies”

What could have gone wrong in two empirical studies?

Crnic, K. A., Neece, C. L., McIntyre, L. L., Blacher, J. and Baker, B. L. (2017), Intellectual Disability and Developmental Risk: Promoting Intervention to Improve Child and Family Well-Being. Child Dev. doi:10.1111/cdev.12740

  • possible experimenter stress?
  • possible lack of consideration for cultural differences?

Frongillo, E. A., Nguyen, P. H., Saha, K. K., Sanghvi, T., Afsana, K., Haque, R., … & Menon, P. (2016). Large-Scale Behavior-Change Initiative for Infant and Young Child Feeding Advanced Language and Motor Development in a Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluation in Bangladesh. The Journal of Nutrition, jn240861.

  • problems with cross cultural study?

Exploring Topics For research

The following videos demonstrate the impact of new technology on improving communication in autistic children:

New technology helps children with autism find their first words

  • Children with autism are being helped to find their first words by new technology that may promise relief from time-consuming and expensive therapies

IPads and language

  • IPads combined with speech therapy are improving language skills in autistic children

Autism and Technology

  • Educators are using technology social media, IPads and smart boards to advance academic, cognitive and social skills for autistic children

Do young children use objects as symbols?

The article “Do young children use objects as symbols?” by Tomasello et al. (1999) discusses researchers assessment of  18-35 month old children’s symbolic skills without scaffolding by adult symbolic action models or verbal verbal scripts. In their studies, researchers sought to determine if children are as proficient with symbols as naturalistic observation of gesture and object play as previous research suggest. In addition, they questioned if children are as bad with gestural and object based symbols as alluded to by literature. To answer these questions the authors of the article developed two studies. In the first study three comprehension tasks were performed with gestures instead of objects. In the second study a three-phase production task was used by initially leaving a child to their own devices and then were given action models and verbal scripts that allowed for creative action. Through their studies researchers were able to conclude that children under two years old have symbolic skills with gestures but not with objects. In addition, at 26 months children have the ability to use an object as a symbol for another object. However, they had trouble when the given symbol had another conventional use.